Glossary Of Laboratory Tests and Terms

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z 1

A

B

C

D

F

G

  1. GABAb receptor & AMPA receptor 1/2 antibodies (Immunology): These are tests that detect antibodies targeting specific receptors in the brain. GABAb and AMPA receptors are associated with neurological functions.
  1. G6PD Assay (if screen gives intermediate or reduced result) (Haematology): This test measures the activity of the enzyme glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) in red blood cells. It is performed if the initial screen shows intermediate or reduced enzyme activity.
  1. G6PD Screen (Haematology): A screening test to assess the activity of the G6PD enzyme in red blood cells. It helps diagnose G6PD deficiency, an inherited condition affecting red blood cell function.
  1. Galactomannan (Virology referral): A test to detect the presence of galactomannan, a component of the cell wall of certain fungi. It is used to diagnose fungal infections, often referred to a specialized virology lab.
  1. Gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) (Biochemistry): A blood test that measures GGT levels, which can be elevated in liver and bile duct diseases.
  1. Ganglioside Abs GM1 & Ganglioside Abs GQ1b (Immunology): These tests detect antibodies against gangliosides, which are molecules found on nerve cell membranes. Abnormal levels can indicate certain neurological disorders.
  1. Gases (Biochemistry): Measurement of gases in the blood, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, to assess respiratory and metabolic function.
  1. Gastric Biopsies for Helicobacter pylori (Bacteriology): A test where tissue samples from the stomach lining are examined for the presence of Helicobacter pylori bacteria, which can cause stomach ulcers and gastritis.
  1. Gastric Parietal Cell (GPC) (Immunology): A test that checks for antibodies against gastric parietal cells, which can be associated with autoimmune gastritis.
  1. Genital specimens for culture (Bacteriology): Collecting and culturing samples from genital areas to identify and diagnose infections.
  1. Gentamicin (Biochemistry): A blood test that measures the levels of gentamicin, an antibiotic, to ensure it is within a therapeutic range and not toxic.
  1. Giardia lamblia (Bacteriology): A test to identify the presence of Giardia lamblia, a parasite that can cause gastrointestinal infections.
  1. Glandular fever screening test (Haematology): A test to detect antibodies related to Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), which is the cause of infectious mononucleosis or glandular fever.
  1. Glomerular basement membrane antibodies (Immunology): A test to detect antibodies directed against the glomerular basement membrane in the kidneys, which can be associated with autoimmune kidney diseases.
  1. Glucose (Biochemistry): A blood test to measure the concentration of glucose (sugar) in the blood. It’s commonly used to assess blood sugar levels.
  1. G-Glutamic Acid Decarboxylase Antibodies (Immunology): A test for antibodies targeting GAD, an enzyme found in the pancreas. Elevated levels can be associated with autoimmune diabetes (Type 1 diabetes).
  1. Glycated Haemoglobin (HbA1c) (Biochemistry): A blood test that provides an average measure of blood glucose levels over the past few months. It’s used to monitor long-term diabetes control.
  1. Glycogen – Special Stain (Non-Gynaecological Cytology Ancillary Tests): A staining technique used in cytology to visualize glycogen within cells, often for diagnosing specific types of tumors.
  1. Gonococcal TMA confirmation (Virology): A test using transcription-mediated amplification (TMA) to confirm the presence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae, the bacteria responsible for gonorrhea.
  1. Gout (urate crystals) (Synovial Fluid Cytology): Examination of synovial fluid for the presence of urate crystals, which is a diagnostic indicator of gout, a type of arthritis.
  1. Gram +ve/-ve sepsis (Synovial Fluid Cytology): Examination of synovial fluid to identify whether the infectious agent causing sepsis is Gram-positive or Gram-negative bacteria.
  1. Growth Hormone; hGH (Biochemistry): A test to measure the levels of human growth hormone (hGH) in the blood, which is important for growth and metabolism.

H

Haematinics: Blood tests that assess various components related to blood formation, such as iron, vitamin B12, and folic acid levels.

Haemochromatosis C282Y, H63D, and S65C genotyping: Genetic tests to identify specific mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, a disorder characterized by excessive iron absorption.

Haemoglobinopathy Alpha- and beta-thalassemia mutation identification: Molecular tests used to detect genetic mutations associated with thalassemia, a group of blood disorders affecting hemoglobin production.

Haemoglobinopathy Screening: Routine tests to identify abnormal hemoglobin variants, such as sickle cell disease or thalassemia, in a population.

Haemolytics – HbS Screening Test: An urgent or pre-operative test to detect the presence of hemoglobin S, a key marker for sickle cell disease, in patients older than one year.

Haemophilia A and B, FVII & FXI deficiency, F7/F8/F9/F11 gene mutation identification: Molecular diagnostics to identify genetic mutations associated with hemophilia and other clotting factor deficiencies.

Haemophilius influenzae type b antibody: Evaluation of antibodies against Haemophilus influenzae type b, often used in vaccine effectiveness assessments.

Haptoglobulin Estimation: A test to measure the levels of haptoglobin in the blood, which can indicate various health conditions, including hemolytic anemia.

HbS Screening Test – Urgent/pre-operative: An immediate test to identify the presence of hemoglobin S, crucial for diagnosing sickle cell disease in patients older than one year.

HBV resistance markers: Molecular tests to detect genetic mutations associated with resistance to hepatitis B virus (HBV) treatments.

HCG blood (pregnancy and as a tumor marker) – Biochemistry: This test measures human chorionic gonadotropin levels in the blood to confirm pregnancy or detect certain tumors.

HCV genotyping – Molecular Microbiology: This test identifies the genotype or strain of the hepatitis C virus, which is important for treatment planning.

Helicobacter pylori – Bacteriology: This test detects the presence of the Helicobacter pylori bacterium in the stomach, often associated with gastric ulcers and other gastrointestinal conditions.

Helicobacter pylori in Gastric Biopsies – Bacteriology: Similar to the previous test, but specifically performed on gastric tissue biopsies.

Heparin control – Haematology: This test measures the level of heparin in the blood to monitor and adjust anticoagulant therapy.

Hepatitis A total antibody (IgG and IgM) – Virology: This test detects antibodies to hepatitis A virus, including both IgG (past infection) and IgM (recent infection) antibodies.

Hepatitis A virus (HAV) IgM – Virology: This test specifically detects IgM antibodies to hepatitis A virus, indicating a recent infection.

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) e antigen (HBeAg) and e antibody (Anti-HBe) – Virology: This test assesses the presence of e antigen and antibody related to hepatitis B virus, which can help determine the stage of infection.

Hepatitis B (HBV) confirmation – Virology: A confirmatory test for hepatitis B virus, usually performed after initial screening tests.

Hepatitis B (HBV) core antibodies – Virology: This test detects antibodies to the core antigen of hepatitis B virus, indicating past or ongoing infection.

Hepatitis B (HBV) core antibody – Dried Blood Spot – Virology: Similar to the previous test but using dried blood spot samples.

Hepatitis B (HBV) core IgM (anti-HBc IgM) – Virology: This test detects IgM antibodies to the core antigen of hepatitis B virus, indicating acute infection.

Hepatitis B e antibody – Virology: This test detects antibodies to e antigen of hepatitis B virus, often seen during the recovery phase of infection.

Hepatitis B e antigen – Virology: This test identifies the presence of e antigen of hepatitis B virus, indicating active viral replication.

Hepatitis B (HBV) surface antibody (Anti-HBs) – Virology: This test measures antibodies to the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus, indicating immunity or successful vaccination.

Hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) – Virology: This test detects the surface antigen of hepatitis B virus, indicating current infection.

Hepatitis B (HBV) surface antigen (HBsAg) – Dried Blood Spot – Virology: Similar to the previous test, but using dried blood spot samples.

Hepatitis B virus viral load – Molecular Microbiology: This test quantifies the amount of hepatitis B virus in the blood, important for monitoring and treatment decisions.

Hepatitis B virus Genotyping and Resistance Markers – Molecular Microbiology: This test identifies the genotype and any drug resistance mutations of hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis C antibody (HCV) screen and confirmation – Virology: This test initially screens for antibodies to hepatitis C virus, followed by confirmation if positive.

Hepatitis C viral load – Molecular Microbiology: This test measures the amount of hepatitis C virus in the blood, crucial for monitoring treatment progress.

Hepatitis C antibody (HCV) screen and confirmation – Dried Blood Spot – Virology: Similar to HCV antibody testing, but using dried blood spot samples.

Hepatitis C qualitative PCR and genotype if HCV antibody is reactive – Dried Blood Spot – Virology: A test that checks for the presence of hepatitis C virus and determines its genotype using dried blood spot samples.

Hepatitis D (delta) antibody – Virology: This test detects antibodies to the hepatitis D virus, which can only occur in the presence of hepatitis B virus.

Hepatitis E IgG – Virology (referral): This test measures IgG antibodies to hepatitis E virus and is usually referred to specialized virology laboratories.

Hepatitis E IgM – Virology: This test detects IgM antibodies to hepatitis E virus, indicating a recent infection.

Hereditary Haemochromatosis HFE gene mutation identification (C282Y/H63D/S65C) – Haematology (Molecular Diagnostics): This test identifies specific gene mutations associated with hereditary hemochromatosis, a condition causing iron overload.

Herpes simplex 1/2 antibody (type-specific, IgM and total antibody) – Virology: This test detects antibodies to herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2, including type-specific IgM and total antibodies.

Herpes simplex virus types 1 and 2 PCR – Molecular Microbiology: This test identifies and quantifies herpes simplex virus DNA in clinical samples.

HFE – Haematology: This test may refer to the analysis of the HFE gene related to hereditary hemochromatosis or other relevant factors in hematology.

hGH – Biochemistry: This test measures human growth hormone (hGH) levels in the blood.

HHV6 & 7 PCR – Molecular Microbiology: This test detects and quantifies human herpesvirus 6 and 7 DNA in clinical samples.

High Risk HPV Test of Cure – Cytology (Gynaecological): A test used in gynecology to check for high-risk human papillomavirus (HPV) infections after treatment.

High Risk HPV triage – Cytology (Gynaecological): This test determines the need for further evaluation when high-risk HPV is detected in cervical samples.

Histone Abs – Immunology: This test detects antibodies against histones, which may be associated with autoimmune diseases.

Histopathology – Paediatric – Histopathology: Histopathological examination specifically focused on pediatric (child) samples.

Histopathology – Routine (adult) – Histopathology: Standard histopathological examination of adult tissue samples.

Histoplasma – Virology (referral): This test involves the referral of samples to virology laboratories for the detection of Histoplasma, a fungal pathogen.

HIV 1 and 2 antibody and p24 antigen screen – Dried Blood Spot – Virology: A test that screens for antibodies to HIV types 1 and 2 and the p24 antigen using dried blood spot samples.

HIV confirmation (screen test plus at least two further tests for HIV 1/2) – Virology: Confirmatory testing for HIV, typically following initial screening.

HIV p24 antigen – Virology: This test specifically detects the p24 antigen of HIV, a protein produced during early infection.

HIV resistance, integrase, tropism – Molecular Microbiology: This test assesses HIV drug resistance, integrase mutations, and viral tropism.

HIV screen (4th generation: HIV1 and 2 antibody and p24 antigen) – Virology: A comprehensive HIV screening test that includes both antibody and p24 antigen detection.

HIV-1 viral load – Molecular Microbiology: This test quantifies the amount of HIV-1 virus in the blood, used to monitor disease progression and treatment.

HTLV 1 and 2 antibody – Virology: This test detects antibodies to human T-lymphotropic virus types 1 and 2.

Human Herpesvirus 6 & 7 PCR – Molecular Microbiology: This test identifies and quantifies human herpesviruses 6 and 7 DNA in clinical samples.

Human papillomavirus – Molecular Microbiology: This test detects and identifies various strains of human papillomavirus (HPV), often associated with cervical cancer.

Human Parvovirus B19 IgG – Virology: This test measures IgG antibodies to human parvovirus B19.

Human Parvovirus B19 IgM – Virology: This test detects IgM antibodies to human parvovirus B19, indicating recent infection.

Human Parvovirus B19 viral load – Molecular Microbiology: This test quantifies the amount of human parvovirus B19 DNA in clinical samples.

Human T Lymphotropic virus (HTLV) 1 and 2 – Virology: This test detects HTLV-1 and HTLV-2, which can cause T-cell leukemia or myelopathy.

I

IA2 – Immunology: IA2 antibodies are tested to diagnose type 1 diabetes or determine autoimmune responses against pancreatic islet cells.

IgE (Total) – Immunology: This test measures the total level of immunoglobulin E in the blood, which is associated with allergies and parasitic infections.

IgG subclasses – Immunology: This test assesses the different subclasses of immunoglobulin G, providing information about immune system function and potential deficiencies.

IGF-1 – Biochemistry: Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 is measured to evaluate growth disorders, such as gigantism or acromegaly, and monitor response to growth hormone therapy.

IGFBP-3 – Biochemistry: This test measures Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3, which is associated with IGF-1 and helps regulate growth.

Immunocytochemistry – Histopathology: A technique used in pathology to visualize specific proteins or antigens within cells and tissues.

Immunocytochemistry for – Typing of malignancies; subtyping of tumors; Determining the primary site of metastatic adenocarcinoma; Oestrogen and Progesterone receptors – Non-Gynaecological Cytology Ancillary Tests: Immunocytochemistry is used to differentiate and classify various malignancies, determine their origin, and assess hormone receptor status.

Immunodeficiency (T&B Lymphocyte Subsets) – Immunology: This test evaluates T-cell and B-cell lymphocyte subsets to diagnose immunodeficiency disorders.

Immunofluorescence – Histopathology: A technique using fluorescent antibodies to visualize specific proteins or antigens in tissue samples.

Immunoglobulin and T cell receptor clonality analysis – Haematology: This test assesses the clonality of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors, useful in diagnosing lymphoproliferative disorders.

Immunoglobulin D, IgD – Immunology: Measurement of immunoglobulin D levels, which is less common than other immunoglobulins and has specific roles in immune responses.

Immunoglobulins (IgG, IgA, IgM) – Immunology: This test measures the levels of different immunoglobulin classes (IgG, IgA, IgM) to evaluate immune system function.

Inflammatory/non-inflammatory bursitis – Synovial Fluid Cytology: A test on synovial fluid to differentiate between inflammatory and non-inflammatory bursitis.

INR – Haematology: The International Normalized Ratio is used to monitor the effectiveness of anticoagulation therapy, particularly with warfarin.

Insulin – Biochemistry: This test measures insulin levels in the blood, essential for diagnosing and monitoring diabetes.

Insulin Antibodies – Immunology: This test checks for the presence of antibodies against insulin, which can affect insulin function.

Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 – Biochemistry: Similar to IGF-1 mentioned earlier, this test assesses growth disorders and response to growth hormone therapy.

Insulin-like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 – Biochemistry: Measures the level of IGFBP-3, a protein associated with IGF-1 in growth regulation.

Intravascular cannulae – Bacteriology: This test detects microbial contamination in intravascular catheters, important for preventing infections.

Invasive infection with Aspergillus – Molecular Microbiology: Detects and identifies the presence of the Aspergillus fungus in invasive infections.

Invasive infection with Candida – Molecular Microbiology: Identifies Candida species in invasive fungal infections.

INVERSION 16 – Haematology: This likely refers to a specific genetic abnormality associated with certain hematological malignancies, such as acute myeloid leukemia (AML).

Iron – Biochemistry: This test measures iron levels in the blood, important for assessing anemia and iron metabolism.

Islet Cell Antibodies – Immunology: This test checks for antibodies against islet cells in the pancreas and is used in the diagnosis of autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes.

J

JAK2 V617F mutation screening (qualitative) – Haematology: This test identifies the presence of the JAK2 V617F mutation, often associated with myeloproliferative disorders such as polycythemia vera and essential thrombocythemia.

JC virus PCR – Molecular Microbiology: This test uses polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to detect the JC virus, which can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML) in individuals with weakened immune systems.

Jejunal Disaccharidases – Biochemistry: A test that assesses the activity of disaccharidases in the jejunum, important for diagnosing malabsorption disorders like lactose intolerance.

Joint fluids – Bacteriology: This test examines fluids collected from joints to identify and diagnose infections or inflammatory conditions affecting the joints.

Ketones – Biochemistry: This test measures the presence of ketones in the blood or urine, which can be indicative of conditions like diabetic ketoacidosis or starvation.

Kidney Function Tests – Biochemistry: A group of tests that assess various aspects of kidney function, including creatinine, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and glomerular filtration rate (GFR).

Kratom (Mitragynine) Testing – Toxicology: A test to detect the presence of mitragynine, the active compound in kratom, a herbal substance sometimes used recreationally.

Kynurenine to Tryptophan Ratio – Biochemistry: This test measures the ratio of kynurenine to tryptophan in the blood, which can be used to evaluate immune system function and inflammation.

Ketamine – Toxicology: A test to detect the presence of ketamine, a dissociative anesthetic sometimes abused recreationally.

Karyotyping for Turner Syndrome – Cytogenetics: A specific karyotype analysis to diagnose Turner syndrome, a genetic condition affecting females.

L

Lactate – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of lactate in the blood, which can indicate tissue oxygenation and is used to diagnose conditions like lactic acidosis.

Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) – Biochemistry: LDH is an enzyme that is measured in blood to assess tissue damage and various medical conditions, including heart attacks, liver disease, and cancer.

Lamotrigine – Biochemistry: A test to measure the concentration of the medication lamotrigine in the blood, which is used to manage epilepsy and bipolar disorder.

Legionella Urinary Antigen Detection – Virology: This test detects the presence of Legionella pneumophila antigens in urine to diagnose Legionnaires’ disease, a severe form of pneumonia.

Leptospira – Virology (referral): A referral test for the detection of the Leptospira bacterium, which causes leptospirosis, a zoonotic infection.

Lipase (Blood and Fluid) – Biochemistry: Lipase is an enzyme that helps digest fats, and measuring its levels in blood or other bodily fluids is important in diagnosing pancreatitis and other pancreatic disorders.

Lipid Profile (including Total Cholesterol, LDL, HDL, Triglycerides) – Biochemistry: This test assesses various aspects of lipid metabolism and helps evaluate the risk of cardiovascular disease.

Lithium (Serum) – Biochemistry: This test measures the concentration of lithium in the blood to monitor levels in individuals taking lithium medications for mood disorders.

Liver FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that uses a fine needle to collect cells from the liver for analysis, typically to investigate liver masses or lesions.

Liver Function Tests – Biochemistry: A panel of blood tests that evaluate the liver’s overall health and function, including assessments of enzymes, bilirubin, and proteins.

Liver Kidney Microsomal (LKM) – Immunology: This test detects antibodies against liver and kidney microsomes, often used in diagnosing autoimmune hepatitis.

L-Selectin Shedding Assay – Immunology: This assay measures the shedding of L-selectin from the surface of white blood cells, which can be used to assess immune system activation.

Lung FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from lung tissue using a fine needle, typically used to investigate lung masses or lesions.

Lupus Anticoagulant – Haematology: A test to detect lupus anticoagulant antibodies, which can increase the risk of abnormal blood clotting, as seen in antiphospholipid syndrome.

Luteinising Hormone (LH) – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of LH in the blood, which is essential for regulating the menstrual cycle and fertility.

Lyme Disease – Virology: A test for the detection of antibodies or genetic material related to the bacterium Borrelia burgdorferi, responsible for Lyme disease.

Lymph Node FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that uses a fine needle to obtain cells from lymph nodes for analysis, often performed to investigate lymphadenopathy.

Lymphoma – Immunoglobulin and T Cell Receptor Clonality Analysis – Haematology: This test assesses the clonality of immunoglobulins and T cell receptors to aid in the diagnosis and classification of lymphomas.

M

Here are definitions for the laboratory tests that start with the letter “M”:

MAG – Immunology: MAG (Myelin Associated Glycoprotein) is a test that measures antibodies against myelin-associated glycoprotein, which is associated with certain neurological conditions.

Magnesium (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: This test measures the levels of magnesium in the blood and urine, important for assessing electrolyte balance and various bodily functions.

Malarial Parasites, Detection of – Haematology: A test used to detect the presence of malarial parasites in blood samples, crucial for diagnosing malaria.

Mannose Binding Lectins – Immunology: Mannose-binding lectin (MBL) testing evaluates levels of MBL, a component of the immune system involved in pathogen recognition.

Manual Blood Film – Haematology: This test involves the microscopic examination of a manually prepared blood film to assess blood cell morphology and detect abnormalities.

Mast Cell Tryptase – Immunology: This test measures tryptase levels in the blood, which can be elevated in conditions associated with mast cell activation, such as allergies and mastocytosis.

Measles IgG – Virology: This test detects IgG antibodies to the measles virus, indicating immunity or past infection.

Measles IgM – Virology: This test specifically detects IgM antibodies to the measles virus, indicating recent infection.

Measles Virus PCR – Molecular Virology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect and identify the genetic material of the measles virus, useful for confirming active infection.

Mediastinal Mass FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from a mediastinal mass in the chest for analysis, often used to investigate tumors or lymph nodes.

Meningococcal DNA Detection by PCR (Multiplex with Pneumococcal DNA PCR) – Molecular Microbiology: A PCR test that detects the DNA of Neisseria meningitidis, the bacterium causing meningococcal disease.

Meningococcal Serology – Bacteriology: A test to detect antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis, which is useful for diagnosing meningococcal infections.

Metadrenalines – Biochemistry: Metadrenalines are metabolites of adrenaline and noradrenaline, and their measurement can help diagnose certain adrenal tumors and conditions.

Met-haemoglobin – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of met-hemoglobin in the blood, which is a form of hemoglobin that cannot carry oxygen effectively.

Methotrexate – Biochemistry: A test to monitor the concentration of the medication methotrexate in the blood, often used in cancer and autoimmune disease treatment.

Mitochondrial Antibodies – Immunology: This test checks for antibodies against mitochondrial components and is useful in diagnosing autoimmune diseases like primary biliary cirrhosis.

Molecular Diagnostics – Thrombophilia, Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation Screen; Hereditary Haemochromatosis HFE Gene Mutation Identification (C282Y / H63D / S65C); Haemophilia A and B, FVII & FXI Deficiency, F7 / F8 / F9 / F11 Gene Mutation Identification, Haemophilia Carrier and Prenatal Diagnosis; von Willebrand Disease – Molecular Diagnosis, Prenatal Diagnosis in Type 3 VWD; Haemoglobinopathy Alpha- and Beta-Thalassaemia Mutation Identification – Haematology (Molecular Diagnostics): Molecular tests used to identify genetic mutations associated with various blood disorders.

Molecular Oncology – Leukaemia (Qualitative & Quantitative), including BCR/ABL t(9;22); AML1ETO t(8;21); INVERSION 16; PML RARA t(15;17); JAK2 V617F Mutation Screening (Qualitative) – Haematology (Molecular Diagnostics): Molecular tests for the qualitative and quantitative assessment of genetic abnormalities associated with leukemia.

Molecular Subtyping of Isolates – Meningococcal Reference Unit: Molecular analysis to subtype and identify isolates of Neisseria meningitidis for surveillance and outbreak investigations.

Molecular Tests for; EGFR Mutation Testing; Her2 Neu Testing; Urovysion FISH Testing of Urine Specimens; K-ras and c-Kit Testing on Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumour FNAs; Molecular Testing for Typing and Specific Mutations of Round Blue Cell Tumours and Sarcomas – Non-Gynaecological Cytology Ancillary Tests: A range of molecular tests used to characterize specific genetic mutations in various cancers and tumors.

Mouth Swab – Bacteriology: A swab taken from the mouth to collect samples for microbiological analysis.

MRSA – Bacteriology: This test detects the presence of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) bacteria, which are antibiotic-resistant and can cause infections.

Mucin – Special Stain – Non-Gynaecological Cytology Ancillary Tests: A special stain used to highlight mucin, a type of glycoprotein found in certain tissues and cells.

Mumps IgG – Virology: This test detects IgG antibodies to the mumps virus, indicating immunity or past infection.

Mumps IgM – Virology: This test specifically detects IgM antibodies to the mumps virus, indicating recent infection.

Muscle Specific Tyrosine Kinase (MUSK) – Immunology: This test measures antibodies against muscle-specific tyrosine kinase, which are associated with myasthenia gravis.

Myelin Associated Glycoprotein (MAG) – Immunology: This test measures antibodies against myelin-associated glycoprotein, which are associated with certain neurological conditions.

Mycobacteria – Microscopy/Culture – Bacteriology: Microscopic examination and culture of samples to detect Mycobacterium species, including those causing tuberculosis.

Mycobacterium PCR – Bacteriology: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect genetic material from Mycobacterium species, useful for diagnosing mycobacterial infections.

Mycoplasma PCR – Molecular Microbiology: This PCR test detects genetic material from Mycoplasma species, which can cause various respiratory and genital infections.

Mycoplasma Pneumoniae Particle Agglutination – Virology: A test that detects antibodies against Mycoplasma pneumoniae, a bacterium that causes respiratory infections.

Myeloperoxidase (MPO) Antibodies – Immunology: This test checks for antibodies against myeloperoxidase, which are associated with certain autoimmune diseases, including ANCA-associated vasculitis.

Myositis Antibodies – Immunology: A group of tests that check for antibodies associated with various forms of myositis, autoimmune diseases affecting muscles.

N

Naïve, Memory, and Effector T Cell Subsets – Immunology: Tests that identify and characterize different subsets of T cells in the immune system, including naïve T cells, memory T cells, and effector T cells.

Neck FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from a neck mass or lymph node using a fine needle for analysis, often used to investigate tumors or lymphadenopathy in the neck.

Neisseria Meningitidis: Functional Antibody to Serogroups A, C, W, and Y by Internationally Standardized Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assays – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: A test that assesses the functional antibodies against specific serogroups of Neisseria meningitidis, important for evaluating vaccine efficacy.

Neisseria Meningitidis: Functional Antibody to Serogroup B by Serum Bactericidal Antibody Assay (SBA) – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: A test that measures functional antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B, used in vaccine evaluation.

Neisseria Meningitidis Isolate Characterization – Meningococcal Reference Unit: The characterization of isolated strains of Neisseria meningitidis, which helps in understanding the bacterium’s epidemiology and virulence.

Neisseria Meningitidis: Serogrouping and Outer Membrane Typing – Meningococcal Reference Unit: A test that identifies the serogroup and outer membrane characteristics of Neisseria meningitidis strains, aiding in outbreak investigations and vaccine development.

Neisseria Meningitidis: Minimum Inhibitory Concentration – Meningococcal Reference Unit: A test that determines the minimum concentration of an antibiotic required to inhibit the growth of Neisseria meningitidis, useful for guiding antibiotic treatment.

Neisseria Meningitidis Serology – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: Serological tests to detect antibodies against Neisseria meningitidis, providing information about immunity and vaccine response.

Neutrophil Function (DHR) Test – Immunology: This test evaluates the function of neutrophils, a type of white blood cell, using dihydrorhodamine (DHR) as an indicator of oxidative burst activity.

NMDA – N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Antibodies – Immunology: A test that measures antibodies against N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors, associated with autoimmune disorders like anti-NMDA receptor encephalitis.

Non-specific Inflammatory Arthropathies – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Synovial fluid analysis for non-specific inflammatory arthropathies, which are conditions characterized by joint inflammation without a specific underlying cause.

Non-specific Non-inflammatory Arthropathies – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Synovial fluid analysis for non-specific non-inflammatory arthropathies, conditions that cause joint pain without inflammation.

Norovirus PCR – Molecular Microbiology: A polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect genetic material from noroviruses, common causes of viral gastroenteritis.

Nose Swab – Bacteriology: A swab taken from the nasal passages to collect samples for microbiological analysis.

NT-proBNP – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) in the blood, a marker used for assessing heart function and diagnosing heart-related conditions.

O

Oesophageal Brushings – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): A procedure that collects cell samples from the esophagus for cytological examination, often used to detect abnormalities or cancerous cells.

Oestradiol – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of estradiol, a form of estrogen, in the blood, important for assessing reproductive health and hormonal balance.

Oral Anticoagulant Control (INR) – Haematology: The International Normalized Ratio (INR) test is used to monitor the effectiveness of oral anticoagulant medications, such as warfarin, in preventing blood clots.

Orosomucoid – Biochemistry: This test measures the concentration of orosomucoid (alpha-1-acid glycoprotein) in the blood, which can be a marker of inflammation and certain medical conditions.

Osmolality (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Osmolality tests measure the concentration of solute particles in blood and urine, helping to assess hydration status and kidney function.

Osmolar Gap – Biochemistry: The osmolar gap is calculated as the difference between the measured osmolality and the calculated osmolality (2 x (Na + K) + glucose + urea). It is used to identify and evaluate abnormal substances in the blood, such as toxic alcohols.

Osteoarthritis – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Synovial fluid analysis for osteoarthritis, a degenerative joint disease characterized by the breakdown of cartilage in the joints.

Ova, Cysts, and Parasites – Bacteriology: A test that examines stool samples for the presence of ova (eggs), cysts, and parasitic organisms, which can indicate various gastrointestinal infections.

Ovarian Cyst FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from an ovarian cyst using a fine needle for analysis, typically to investigate the nature of the cyst.

Ovary Antibodies – Immunology: This test detects antibodies against ovarian tissue and is used in the diagnosis of autoimmune ovarian diseases and fertility-related conditions.

P

  1. Pancreatic FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from the pancreas using a fine needle for analysis, often used to investigate pancreatic tumors or lesions.
  2. Paracetamol – Biochemistry: This test measures the concentration of paracetamol (acetaminophen) in the blood, which is important for assessing potential toxicity in cases of overdose.
  3. Paraneoplastic Neuronal Antibodies – Immunology: A test that detects antibodies associated with paraneoplastic neurological syndromes, which are immune-mediated conditions often associated with cancer.
  4. Parasites – Bacteriology: A test that examines stool or other samples for the presence of parasitic organisms, which can cause various infections in humans.
  5. Paratesticular FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from paratesticular structures using a fine needle, typically used to investigate masses or lesions in the scrotum.
  6. Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) – Biochemistry: This test measures the level of parathyroid hormone in the blood, which helps regulate calcium and phosphate levels in the body.
  7. Parvovirus B19 IgG – Virology: A test that detects IgG antibodies to parvovirus B19, which can indicate past infection or immunity.
  8. Parvovirus B19 IgM – Virology: This test specifically detects IgM antibodies to parvovirus B19, indicating recent or active infection.
  9. Parvovirus B19 Viral Load – Molecular Microbiology: A molecular test that measures the quantity of parvovirus B19 genetic material in a sample, used to diagnose and monitor the virus.
  10. Perinatal Post Mortems – Histopathology: Post-mortem examinations of fetuses and newborns to determine the cause of death or identify congenital abnormalities.
  11. Peritoneal Fluid – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): Analysis of peritoneal fluid for the presence of abnormal cells or other abnormalities, often performed in cases of ascites or peritoneal malignancies.
  12. Peritoneal Washings – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): Examination of fluid collected during a peritoneal washing procedure to assess for cancer cells or other abnormalities.
  13. Pernasal Swab (for Pertussis) – Bacteriology: A swab taken from the nasal passages to detect the presence of Bordetella pertussis, the bacterium responsible for pertussis (whooping cough).
  14. pH (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Measurement of the acidity or alkalinity (pH level) of blood and urine samples, important for assessing acid-base balance and kidney function.
  15. Phenobarbitone – Biochemistry: This test measures the concentration of the medication phenobarbital in the blood, commonly used to treat seizures.
  16. Phenytoin – Biochemistry: A test that measures the level of the anti-epileptic medication phenytoin in the blood to ensure therapeutic levels and prevent toxicity.
  17. Phosphate (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Tests to measure phosphate levels in blood and urine, crucial for assessing bone health, kidney function, and acid-base balance.
  18. P1NP – Biochemistry: Measurement of procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide (P1NP), a marker of bone formation and collagen synthesis.
  19. PIIINP – Biochemistry: This test measures procollagen type III N-terminal propeptide (PIIINP), a marker for collagen synthesis, often used in assessing liver fibrosis.
  20. PLA2R Antibodies – Immunology: A test that detects antibodies against phospholipase A2 receptor (PLA2R), associated with primary membranous nephropathy.
  21. Plasma Viscosity – Haematology: Measurement of the viscosity (thickness) of plasma, which can be influenced by various medical conditions.
  22. Platelet Glycoprotein Expression – Immunology: A test that assesses the expression of specific glycoproteins on the surface of platelets, important for diagnosing platelet disorders.
  23. Platelet Aggregation Studies – Haematology: Laboratory tests that evaluate the ability of platelets to aggregate and form blood clots, aiding in the diagnosis of bleeding and clotting disorders.
  24. Pleural Fluid – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): Analysis of fluid collected from the pleural cavity for the presence of abnormal cells or other abnormalities, often performed in cases of pleural effusion.
  25. PLGF – Biochemistry: Measurement of placental growth factor (PlGF), a protein associated with angiogenesis and vascular function, used in pregnancy-related assessments.
  26. PML RARA t(15;17) – Haematology: A test that identifies the PML-RARA fusion gene associated with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL).
  27. Pneumococcal PCR – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect genetic material from Streptococcus pneumoniae, a bacterium causing pneumonia and other infections.
  28. Pneumococcal Serotype-specific IgG – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: Measurement of specific IgG antibodies against different serotypes of Streptococcus pneumoniae, used for vaccine evaluation and immunity assessment.
  29. Pneumococcal Urinary Antigen Detection – Virology: A test that detects the presence of pneumococcal antigens in urine, aiding in the diagnosis of pneumococcal infections.
  30. Pneumocystis jirovecii PCR – Molecular Microbiology: A PCR test that detects genetic material from Pneumocystis jirovecii, a fungal pathogen causing pneumonia in immunocompromised individuals.
  31. Polyoma Viruses (BK) – Molecular Microbiology: Detection of BK polyomavirus genetic material, which can cause infections in transplant recipients and other immunocompromised individuals.
  32. JC Virus PCR – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) test to detect genetic material from JC virus, which can cause progressive multifocal leukoencephalopathy (PML).
  33. Polysaccharide Antigen Detection – Meningococcal Reference Unit: A test that detects the presence of specific polysaccharide antigens from Neisseria meningitidis, used for serotyping and vaccine development.
  34. Post Trachelectomy Cytology – Cytology (Gynaecological): Cytological examination of cervical cells following trachelectomy, a surgical procedure for cervical cancer treatment.
  35. Potassium – Biochemistry: Measurement of potassium levels in the blood, essential for maintaining normal heart and muscle function.
  36. PR3 Autoantibodies (cANCA) – Immunology: A test that detects anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCA) targeting proteinase 3 (PR3), associated with autoimmune vasculitis.
  37. Pregnancy Test (Blood) – Biochemistry: A blood test to confirm pregnancy by detecting the presence of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) hormone.
  38. Procalcitonin – Biochemistry: Measurement of procalcitonin levels, which can rise in response to bacterial infections, used to differentiate between bacterial and viral infections.
  39. Progesterone – Biochemistry: This test measures the concentration of the hormone progesterone in the blood, important for assessing reproductive health and menstrual cycle status.
  40. Prolactin – Biochemistry: Measurement of prolactin levels, a hormone produced by the pituitary gland, often used in evaluating fertility and diagnosing hormonal disorders.
  41. Prostate Specific Antigen – Biochemistry: Measurement of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels, a marker used in prostate cancer screening and monitoring.
  42. Total Protein – Biochemistry: Measurement of total protein levels in the blood, important for assessing nutritional status and liver or kidney function.
  43. Protein C – Haematology: Measurement of protein C levels, a clotting factor that plays a role in regulating blood clot formation.
  44. Protein Creatinine Ratio (Urine) – Biochemistry: A urine test that assesses the ratio of protein to creatinine, used to screen for and monitor kidney disease.
  45. Protein S – Haematology: Measurement of protein S levels, a clotting factor that assists in the regulation of blood clot formation.
  46. Prothrombin G20210A Mutation Screen – Haematology: A genetic test to screen for the presence of the prothrombin G20210A mutation, which can increase the risk of blood clot formation.
  47. Prothrombin Time – Haematology: A blood test that measures the time it takes for blood to clot, used to assess the function of the clotting cascade.
  48. Pseudogout (Pyrophosphate Crystals) – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Examination of synovial fluid for the presence of calcium pyrophosphate crystals, indicative of pseudogout, a form of arthritis.
  49. Pus – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of pus samples, often collected from infected wounds, to identify causative pathogens.
  50. PVIS – Haematology: PVIS (Packed Cell Volume Index of Suspicion) is a measure used in hematology to assess the likelihood of certain blood disorders or conditions.

Q

Q Fever Serology and PCR – Virology (Referral): Q fever is an infectious disease caused by the bacterium Coxiella burnetii. Serology tests detect antibodies to the bacterium in the blood, indicating past exposure or infection. PCR (Polymerase Chain Reaction) tests detect the genetic material of the bacterium, providing a rapid and specific diagnosis.

Quiescent Gout (Urate Crystals) – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Synovial fluid analysis for the presence of urate crystals in patients with gout, a condition characterized by the accumulation of urate crystals in joints, leading to inflammation and pain during acute flares. “Quiescent” refers to a period of relative inactivity or remission of gout symptoms.

R

Rapid/Routine Carbapenemase-Producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) Screen – Bacteriology: A laboratory screening test used to quickly detect the presence of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE), which are bacteria resistant to carbapenem antibiotics.

Reducing Substances (Faeces Only) – Biochemistry: A test that measures the presence of reducing substances in fecal samples, which can be indicative of certain gastrointestinal disorders or malabsorption syndromes.

Renal FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from the kidney using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate renal masses or lesions.

Renin Concentration – Biochemistry: Measurement of the concentration of renin, an enzyme involved in regulating blood pressure and electrolyte balance, in the blood.

Resin Embedding/Thin Sectioning – Electron Microscopy: A laboratory technique used in electron microscopy to prepare specimens by embedding them in resin and creating thin sections for detailed microscopic examination.

Respiratory Screen – Molecular Microbiology: A diagnostic test that screens respiratory specimens (e.g., throat swabs or sputum) for the presence of various respiratory pathogens, including viruses and bacteria.

Respiratory Specimens – Bacteriology: Laboratory analysis of specimens collected from the respiratory tract, such as sputum or bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, to identify respiratory infections and causative pathogens.

Respiratory Virus PCR – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to detect and identify respiratory viruses, including influenza, respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), and others.

Reticulocyte Count – Haematology: Measurement of the number of reticulocytes, young red blood cells, in the bloodstream, often used to assess bone marrow function and monitor anemia.

Retroperitoneal Mass FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from a retroperitoneal mass using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate tumors or lesions in the retroperitoneal space.

Rheumatoid Factor – Immunology: A blood test that measures the presence of rheumatoid factor, an antibody often elevated in individuals with rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune conditions.

Ribosomal – Immunology: This term likely refers to tests or analyses related to ribosomes, cellular structures involved in protein synthesis.

RIPA (Ristocetin Induced Platelet Aggregation) – Haematology: A laboratory test that assesses the ability of platelets to aggregate in response to ristocetin, used to diagnose von Willebrand disease and platelet function disorders.

Routine Haemoglobinopathy Screening – Haematology: Screening tests that identify individuals at risk for hemoglobinopathies, such as sickle cell disease and thalassemia, which are genetic blood disorders.

Rotavirus PCR (Enteric) – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of rotavirus in enteric (intestinal) specimens, important in diagnosing viral gastroenteritis.

Rubella IgG – Virology: A test that detects IgG antibodies to the rubella virus, indicating past infection or immunity.

Rubella IgM – Virology: This test specifically detects IgM antibodies to the rubella virus, indicating recent or active infection.

Rubella Avidity – Virology (Referral): A specialized test to measure the avidity or strength of IgG antibodies to rubella, used to determine the timing of a rubella infection.

S

Salicylate – Biochemistry: Measurement of salicylate levels in the blood, often associated with monitoring aspirin or salicylate overdose.

Salivary Gland FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from a salivary gland using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate salivary gland tumors or lesions.

Sapovirus PCR (Enteric) – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of sapovirus in enteric (intestinal) specimens, important in diagnosing viral gastroenteritis.

Schistosoma haematobium – Bacteriology: Detection and identification of Schistosoma haematobium, a parasitic worm causing schistosomiasis, in clinical samples.

Selenium – Biochemistry: Measurement of selenium levels in the blood, an essential trace element important for various biological processes.

Sero-Negative Arthropathies – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Examination of synovial fluid in cases of arthropathies where serological markers are not present.

Sero-Negative Spondylarthropathies – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Examination of synovial fluid in cases of spondylarthropathies where serological markers are not present.

Serum Folate – Haematology: Measurement of folate levels in the blood, essential for cell division and the production of DNA.

Serum Ferritin – Haematology: Measurement of ferritin levels in the blood, a marker of iron storage in the body.

Serum Intrinsic Factor Antibodies – Haematology: A test that detects antibodies to intrinsic factor, often associated with pernicious anemia, a condition affecting vitamin B12 absorption.

Serum Paraprotein Identification/Quantification – Immunology: Identification and quantification of paraproteins, abnormal proteins often associated with conditions like multiple myeloma.

Serum Protein Electrophoresis – Immunology: A laboratory technique used to separate and identify different protein fractions in the blood, including albumin and globulins.

Serum Vitamin B12 – Haematology: Measurement of vitamin B12 levels in the blood, important for red blood cell production and nerve function.

Serum 17-Hydroxyprogesterone (17-OHP) – Biochemistry: Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone levels, used in newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia.

SHBG (Sex Hormone-Binding Globulin) – Biochemistry: Measurement of SHBG levels, a protein that binds to sex hormones, often used in assessing hormonal balance.

Sirolimus – Biochemistry: Measurement of sirolimus levels, an immunosuppressive medication used in transplantation.

Skin Antibodies – Immunology: Antibodies that target components found in the skin, which can be relevant in autoimmune skin conditions.

Skin, Superficial, Non-Surgical Wounds – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of superficial skin wounds not requiring surgery to identify potential pathogens.

Smooth Muscle Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies targeting smooth muscle, often associated with autoimmune hepatitis.

Sodium (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Measurement of sodium levels in the blood and urine, important for electrolyte balance and overall health.

Splenic FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from the spleen using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate splenic masses or lesions.

Sputum – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): Examination of sputum samples for the presence of abnormal cells, often used in diagnosing respiratory conditions and lung cancer.

Sputum – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of sputum samples to identify respiratory pathogens and infections.

Staphylococcal Serology (including Anti-DNaseB) – Virology (Referral): Serological tests to detect antibodies against Staphylococcus aureus and anti-DNaseB antibodies, which can be associated with streptococcal infections.

Streptococcus pneumoniae Serology – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: Serological tests to detect antibodies against Streptococcus pneumoniae, used for assessing immunity and vaccine evaluation.

Subcutaneous Mass FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from a subcutaneous mass or lump using a fine needle for analysis, often used to investigate skin or subcutaneous tissue abnormalities.

Sweat Tests – Biochemistry: Tests that measure sweat chloride levels, commonly used in diagnosing cystic fibrosis.

Syphilis Antibody – Virology: A test that detects antibodies to Treponema pallidum, the bacterium responsible for syphilis, used in syphilis screening.

Syphilis Confirmation including Immunoblot – Virology: Confirmatory tests, including immunoblot assays, for diagnosing syphilis after a positive screening result.

Syphilis IgM – Virology: A test that specifically detects IgM antibodies to Treponema pallidum, used in the early diagnosis of syphilis.

T

TB Gamma Interferon Release Assay (Quantiferon) – Immunology: A blood test used to diagnose tuberculosis (TB) by measuring the release of gamma interferon in response to TB antigens.

Tacrolimus (FK506, Prograf) – Biochemistry: Measurement of tacrolimus levels in the blood, an immunosuppressive medication used in transplantation to prevent organ rejection.

TB Examination (Microscopy) – Bacteriology: Microscopic examination of sputum or other clinical samples to detect the presence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the bacterium that causes TB.

T Cell Activation Panel – Immunology: A panel of tests that assesses the activation status of T cells, a crucial component of the immune system.

Testicular FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from the testicles using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate testicular masses or lesions.

Testis Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies directed against testicular antigens, which can be relevant in autoimmune conditions affecting the testes.

Testosterone – Biochemistry: Measurement of testosterone levels in the blood, a male sex hormone important for various physiological functions.

Tetanus Antibodies – Vaccine Evaluation Unit: Testing for antibodies against the tetanus toxin, which can indicate immunity to tetanus and the need for booster vaccinations.

Theophylline – Biochemistry: Measurement of theophylline levels in the blood, a medication used to treat respiratory conditions like asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).

Therapeutic Drug Monitoring of Anti-TNF Therapies (Infliximab and Adalimumab) – Immunology: Monitoring the blood levels of anti-tumor necrosis factor (anti-TNF) medications like Infliximab and Adalimumab to ensure therapeutic effectiveness and safety.

Thiopental – Biochemistry: Measurement of thiopental levels in the blood, an intravenous anesthetic agent.

Thiopurine Metabolites – Biochemistry: Testing for metabolites of thiopurine medications, such as azathioprine or mercaptopurine, which are used to treat certain autoimmune diseases.

Thiopurine Methyltransferase (TPMT) – Biochemistry: Testing for TPMT enzyme activity or genetic variants, important for determining the appropriate dose of thiopurine medications.

Throat Swab – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of a swab taken from the throat to identify potential pathogens causing respiratory infections.

Thrombophilia Assays – Haematology: Various tests, including Antithrombin, Factor V Leiden Mutation Screen, Prothrombin G20210A Mutation Screen, Lupus Anticoagulant, Protein C, and Protein S assays, used to assess the risk of thrombophilia or abnormal blood clotting disorders.

Thrombophilia Factor V Leiden and Prothrombin G20210A Mutation Screen – Haematology (Molecular Diagnostics): Molecular genetic testing to detect specific gene mutations associated with thrombophilia.

Thyroid FNA (Fine Needle Aspiration) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology: A diagnostic procedure that collects cells from the thyroid gland using a fine needle for analysis, typically used to investigate thyroid nodules or masses.

Thyroid Peroxidase (TPO) Antibodies – Biochemistry: Measurement of antibodies against thyroid peroxidase, often associated with autoimmune thyroid disorders like Hashimoto’s thyroiditis.

Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) – Biochemistry: Measurement of TSH levels in the blood, a hormone that regulates thyroid function.

Free Thyroxine – Biochemistry: Measurement of free thyroxine levels in the blood, an important thyroid hormone.

Tips – Bacteriology: Testing of specimens related to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedures to detect infections or complications.

Tissue Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of tissue samples to identify bacterial infections or pathogens.

Tobramycin – Biochemistry: Measurement of tobramycin levels in the blood, an antibiotic used to treat various infections.

Toxoplasma PCR – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing for the detection of Toxoplasma gondii, a parasite responsible for toxoplasmosis.

Toxoplasma Serology (Avidity, IgG, IgM) – Virology: Serological tests to detect antibodies against Toxoplasma gondii, used to diagnose and assess the stage of toxoplasmosis infection.

Transferrin (and Saturation) – Biochemistry: Measurement of transferrin levels and calculation of transferrin saturation, which can provide information about iron transport and storage.

Treponema pallidum (Syphilis) PCR – Molecular Microbiology: PCR testing for the detection of Treponema pallidum, the bacterium causing syphilis, which is used in the early diagnosis of syphilis.

Treponema pallidum Confirmation – Virology: Confirmatory tests for the diagnosis of syphilis after initial positive screening results.

Treponema pallidum Screen – Virology: Initial screening tests for syphilis antibodies.

Trichomonas vaginalis – Virology: Detection of Trichomonas vaginalis, a protozoan parasite responsible for trichomoniasis, in clinical samples.

Triglycerides – Biochemistry: Measurement of triglyceride levels in the blood, a type of lipid associated with cardiovascular health.

Triiodothyronine (Free T3) – Biochemistry: Measurement of free triiodothyronine levels in the blood, a thyroid hormone.

Troponin T – Biochemistry: Measurement of troponin T levels in the blood, a cardiac marker used to diagnose heart damage or injury.

TSH Receptor Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies that target the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) receptor, often associated with autoimmune thyroid conditions like Graves’ disease.

U

Universal Antenatal Haemoglobinopathy Screening – Haematology: A screening program offered to pregnant individuals to detect hemoglobinopathies (e.g., sickle cell disease, thalassemia) in the unborn baby, typically done during prenatal care.

Urate (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Measurement of urate (uric acid) levels in the blood and urine, which can be used to assess kidney function and diagnose conditions like gout.

Urea (Blood and Urine) – Biochemistry: Measurement of urea levels in the blood and urine, an indicator of kidney function and overall metabolic health.

Ureteric Washing – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): A procedure that collects cells from the lining of the ureter for cytological analysis, often used to investigate abnormal findings or suspected malignancies in the ureters.

Urethral Washing – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): A procedure that collects cells from the lining of the urethra for cytological analysis, typically used to evaluate infections or abnormalities.

Urine (Voided, Catheterised, Instrumented, or from Ileal Conduit) – Non-Gynaecological Cytology (Exfoliative Cytology): Cytological analysis of urine samples collected through various methods, including voided, catheterized, instrumented, or from an ileal conduit, to detect abnormal cells or infections.

Urines – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of urine samples to identify bacterial infections or assess urinary tract health.

Urine Culture – Bacteriology: Culturing of urine samples to detect and identify specific bacteria causing urinary tract infections (UTIs).

V

  1. Valproate – Biochemistry: Measurement of valproate levels in the blood, a medication used to treat epilepsy and mood disorders.
  2. Vancomycin – Biochemistry: Measurement of vancomycin levels in the blood, an antibiotic used to treat severe bacterial infections, including those resistant to other antibiotics.
  3. Varicella Zoster IgG – Virology: Detection of IgG antibodies against the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), which causes chickenpox and shingles. IgG antibodies indicate past infection or vaccination.
  4. Varicella Zoster IgM – Virology: Detection of IgM antibodies against the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), typically indicating recent or active infection.
  5. Varicella-Zoster Virus PCR – Molecular Microbiology: Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing to detect the genetic material of the varicella-zoster virus (VZV), used for diagnosing VZV infections.
  6. Vault Cytology – Cytology (Gynaecological): Examination of cells collected from the vaginal vault, often used in gynaecological screenings and cancer assessments.
  7. Vitamin A (Retinol) – Biochemistry: Measurement of vitamin A (retinol) levels in the blood, an essential nutrient important for vision, immune function, and overall health.
  8. Vitamin B12 – Biochemistry: Measurement of vitamin B12 levels in the blood, an essential vitamin for nerve function and the formation of red blood cells.
  9. Vitamin D – Biochemistry: Measurement of vitamin D levels in the blood, which is important for bone health and various physiological processes.
  10. Vitamin E (Tocopherol) – Biochemistry: Measurement of vitamin E (tocopherol) levels in the blood, an antioxidant important for protecting cells from oxidative damage.
  11. Voltage-Gated Calcium Channel Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies targeting voltage-gated calcium channels, often associated with autoimmune conditions like Lambert-Eaton myasthenic syndrome (LEMS).
  12. Voltage-Gated Potassium Channel Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies targeting voltage-gated potassium channels, which may be associated with neurological autoimmune disorders.
  13. von Willebrand Disease Molecular Diagnosis – Haematology (Molecular Diagnostics): Molecular genetic testing to diagnose von Willebrand disease (VWD), a bleeding disorder. Prenatal diagnosis in type 3 VWD is also possible using these tests.
  14. VRE Screening – Bacteriology: Screening for vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) bacteria to monitor and control the spread of antibiotic-resistant infections.
  15. Vulval Cytology – Cytology (Gynaecological): Examination of cells collected from the vulva, the external female genitalia, often used in gynaecological screenings and cancer assessments.

W

  1. Wear and/or Loosening of Prosthetic Joints – Synovial Fluid Cytology: Cytological analysis of synovial fluid collected from prosthetic joints to detect wear, inflammation, or other signs of joint dysfunction, commonly performed in patients with joint replacements.
  2. Wounds – Skin, Superficial, Non-surgical – Bacteriology: Microbiological analysis of samples collected from superficial wounds in the skin to identify potential bacterial infections and determine appropriate treatment.

X

Xanthochromia Screen (CSF) – Biochemistry: A biochemical analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) to detect the presence of xanthochromia, which is the yellowish discoloration of CSF due to the breakdown of red blood cells. It is often used to diagnose subarachnoid hemorrhage or other neurological conditions.

Z

Zinc – Biochemistry: Measurement of zinc levels in the blood, an essential mineral that plays a role in various physiological processes, including immune function and wound healing.

Zinc Transporter 8 (ZnT8) Antibodies – Immunology: Detection of antibodies targeting the zinc transporter 8 protein, often associated with autoimmune conditions like type 1 diabetes.

1

1,25-Dihydroxy Vitamin D (1,25-DHVD) – Biochemistry: Measurement of the active form of vitamin D in the blood, which is important for calcium absorption and bone health.

17 OHP (Blood Spot) – Biochemistry: Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP) levels in a blood spot sample, often used in newborn screening for congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

17 OHP (Serum) – Biochemistry: Measurement of 17-hydroxyprogesterone (17 OHP) levels in the serum (blood), used to diagnose and monitor conditions like congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH).

Shopping Cart
× We are here to help!